For anyone who is expecting and you are curious about the question: broccoli during third trimester. You will find many beneficial details on this topic, as well as tips, advice, experiences, and answers to questions regarding pregnancy, right nutrition and eating plans.
During pregnancy, a series of adaptive changes take place in the woman, the purpose of which is to maintain both the optimal growth and development of the fetus, and to prepare her body to successfully cope with childbirth and breastfeeding. There are changes at the hormonal, digestive, circulatory, kidney, skin, spine and psychological changes, among which are the acceptance of pregnancy and the changes that it entails. that eating for two and that unfulfilled cravings leave physical marks on the baby.
WHAT DO WE HAVE TO KNOW?
First trimester : caloric needs should increase approximately 300 kcal / day ensuring a supply of good quality nutrients by eating a varied, balanced and moderate diet. Weight gain in these months is very low, between 0 and 1 kg approximately.
Second trimester : caloric intake is essential since if it is not ensured, future breastfeeding could be compromised. If before pregnancy 2,200 kcal / day were needed during the second half of pregnancy, an increase of approximately 340 kcal / day should be achieved, logically these values vary depending on the previous weight of the pregnant woman. The weight should be increased by between 3 and 4 kg approximately.
Third trimester : the demand for energy (450kcal / day) and nutrients increases because the weight gain of the fetus is very high, so the greater weight gain is It produces at this stage reaching approximately 8kg, it will depend on again of the woman’s previous weight.
Source: Table adapted from: Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. Weight gain during pregnancy: re-examining the guidelines. Washington DC: The National Academy Press; 2009
The calorie profile of the diet will be the same as that of an adult woman.
Proteins : 10-15% of kcal ingested.
Carbohydrates : 50-55% of ingested kcal.
Lipids : 30-35% of kcal ingested.
Special importance must be given to AGPs (polyunsaturated fatty acids), which are very important for the growth and development of children. It is advisable to take 1-2 times / week small blue fish, 3-4 times / week nuts, seed oil and derivatives.
Iron : it is an essential mineral element for life since it is part of the circulating hemoglobin and myoglobin present in the muscle, thus as well as other tissue proteins of great physiological importance for cellular respiration. Its deficit during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight, prematurity, and increased perinatal mortality.
Iron requirements are increased during pregnancy, the recommended dose is 25-27 mg / day , being especially important in the second and third trimesters. We can find iron in a multitude of animal and vegetable foods such as: meat, liver, eggs, fish, clams, mussels, legumes, chard, spinach.
Calcium: is essential for the bony development of the fetus, its deficiency has been related to the appearance of pre-eclampsia (premature hypertension in pregnancy). It is recommended to consume 1000 mg / day in the second half of pregnancy without there being a universal recommendation for the intake of a calcium supplement. The main dietary sources of calcium are milk, yogurt, curd, cheese, chard, spinach, endive, nuts (almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts) and legumes (soybeans, lentils, beans, chickpeas). < / p>
Iodine: Iodine is an essential micronutrient for the neurological development of the fetus, its deficiency during pregnancy leads to alterations such as fetal hypothyroidism that leads to cretinism, abortion … supplementation is recommended with iodine throughout pregnancy and lactation, the recommendations being between 175-220 & micro; g / day . We can find iodine in foods like sea fish; Mackerel, vegetables, meat, eggs, seafood, as a recommendation use iodized salt .
Zinc: contributes to the normal synthesis of DNA, supplementation with zinc significantly reduces premature births, the main food source is food of animal origin and cereals , the recommendation for pregnancy being 10-11 mg / day.
Vitamin B9 (folic acid): is very important during pregnancy, a folic acid deficiency is a risk factor for neural tube defects In the fetus, a deficiency of this vitamin has also been associated with elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood. The recommendation of 500-600 µg / day is maintained throughout pregnancy, this recommendation can be obtained from supplements or through fortified foods, foods that provide folic acid are green leafy vegetables, liver, fruits, cereals, legumes and nuts.
Vitamin B12: contributes to the cell division process, the recommended daily intake is 2.2 µg / day . It is found exclusively in foods of animal origin (eggs, poultry, meat, seafood and milk).
Vitamin A : Its deficiency during pregnancy is associated with an increase in maternal mortality, risk of premature birth and pre-eclampsia, the recommendation of 800 & mu; g / day . It is found in vegetables such as carrots, tomatoes, bell peppers, and green leafy vegetables.
Vitamin C : helps prevent oxidative stress. Women who smoke could have a higher risk of deficiency, the recommendations in the second half of pregnancy are 80-85 mg / day to cover fetal needs. Vitamin C is present in citrus fruits such as orange, tangerine, strawberry, kiwi, broccoli & hellip;
Vitamin D : severe deficiency during pregnancy is associated with problems in calcium metabolism in mother and child: rickets, neonatal hypocalcemia & hellip; intake of 10-15 & mu; g / day reduces the incidence of hypocalcemia in the neonate. It must be remembered that the main source of vit D is exposure to sunlight, advising an exposure to the sun of 15 min a day, as food sources are dairy products and fish such as salmon. n and canned tuna .
Vitamin E : the intake of this vitamin is increased by 25% compared to non-pregnant women due to its stimulating role in fetal growth. It is found mainly in vegetable oils, nuts, some cereals and green leafy vegetables.
Fiber : it has been proven that a diet rich in fiber in all stages of life and mainly during pregnancy has positive effects on the prevention of excess weight, in addition ; s constipation is usually common in pregnant women, so it is advisable to increase fiber intake to 40 g / day.
Lutein and Zeaxanthin are two carotenoids found in egg yolk that provide health benefits, as they have antioxidant and anticancer effects. Eggs are the only food of animal origin that provides lutein and zeaxanthin, and although its content is lower than that of some sources of plant origin, its bioavailability is greater, since they are found in the yolk, a medium with high lipid content.
These compounds appear in the plasma of the umbilical cord and in breast milk, which also suggests the great interest of their intake during pregnancy, lactation and in the first months of life. < / p>
They are not recommended during pregnancy:
& bull; Uncooked or raw meats , especially pork since there may be a risk of toxoplasmosis, a disease that can cause congenital alterations in the newborn, therefore it is advisable to always cook meat for above 60 & ordm; C.
& bull; Fish or shellfish undercooked or raw , since there is a risk of infection by anisakis, to destroy anisakis it is necessary to freeze at -20 ° C for at least 24 hours or cook at more than 60 ° C. C for 10min.
& bull; Unpasteurized foods such as cheeses and homemade pates, there is a risk of infection by listeria.
& bull; Large fish such as swordfish due to possible high mercury content, which may cause harm to the mother and the baby.
& bull; Sprouted sprouts and raw salads as they can contain viruses, bacteria and parasites, to eliminate the risk it is recommended to use food disinfectants.
Tips for disinfecting fruits and vegetables before being eaten:
& bull; Outer sheets that may be damaged or in poor condition should be removed.
& bull; When the damaged parts are removed, wash them well, for this they must remain under water for 2 min, you can help yourself with a brush if they are very dirty.
& bull; After washing them, we disinfect them by leaving them to soak for 10 min, you can choose to use: sodium bicarbonate, diluting a tablespoon of bicarbonate in a liter of water, bleach diluting 5 drops in a liter of water, or vinegar diluting a glass of this also in a liter.
& bull; Now you just have to wash the fruits and vegetables again with cold water until the disinfectant is removed from them.
Sources: Spanish Federation of Nutrition, Food and Diet Societies (FESNAD), 2010. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. Weight gain during pregnancy: re-examining the guidelines. Washington DC: The National Academy Press; 2009; Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamine D, 2011. Regulation N & ordm; 432/2012 of the European Commission. Triptych FESNAD “In Pregnancy and Lactation, Eating Well is the Best I Love You”, 2015.
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